Not war, Not Peace?
Today’s cross-border groups view territory expediently, as a base from which they can organize their campaigns and plot their attacks. The new breed of Islamic terror groups are ‘explicitly global’—in the sense that they have broadly anti-Western views rather than locally defined objectives, and their members hail from different states rather than from a distinct community with distinct interests.
Where the armed groups of old sought to build or remake nation states, today’s cross-border terrorists feed off the demise of state authority. Where national liberation movements sought to redraw state boundaries, cross-border groups think nothing of moving from one failed state to another. Where the earlier violent groups focused their energies on achieving limited local aims, even as they carried out international operations, today’s terror groups talk about ‘spreading jihad’ around the globe.
- India has been the victim of the use of cross-border terrorism by the neighboring State and its intelligence agencies since 1956 to achieve their strategic objectives, which are three in number. First, to create a religious divide between the Hindus, who are in a majority, and the Muslims, who are in a substantial minority. Second, to keep the Indian State destabilized and preoccupied with internal security tasks in order to hamper the economic development of the country. And third, to annex the State of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K), which is an integral part of India.
- When India and Pakistan became independent in 1947, the Muslims constituted about 11 per cent of India’s population. Today, they constitute about 14 per cent. In 1947, in the territory, which is now known as Pakistan, the Hindus constituted a little over 10 per cent of the population. Today, they constitute about two per cent. The rest of them were either massacred or driven out of the country or forcibly converted to Islam.
- Today, India has the second largest Muslim community in the world with about 140 million plus, after Indonesia. India has more Sunnis and more Shias than Pakistan. They are guaranteed equal rights under the Constitution of India, which was inspired by the Constitution of the United States of America.
Through the process of weakening state authority and internationalizing conflicts, Western intervention has given rise to a new kind of terrorist—terrorists who, as Pentagon officials put it, ‘respect no borders, no boundaries and no state institutions’, who feed off the absence of state authority and move across territories in the execution of their ‘global’ campaigns.These social continuities across territorial frontiers have given rise to demands for redrawing national and international boundaries. However, due to the involvement of external forces, the scope for the resolution of conflicts at internal level is greatly reduced.
Countries surrounding India have been actively exploiting the volatile situation in the north-east and Jammu and Kashmir, as well as the disturbed law and order situation in various other parts of the country. Through political backing, economic assistance, military training and arms supplies, these countries have contributed varyingly to destabilize the internal security situation in India.India’s borders are not ‘secure’ in the sense they are vast and difficult at any one time to watch over, given the terrain in the north and northwest as well as in the north-east. The borders are porous, and easy to infiltrate. Illegal immigration is a major problem in the east.
Economic deprivation and low development levels among many regions occupied by some communities have been grounds for disturbances.Poverty is endemic in the region, and many groups are demanding independence, citing neglect and discrimination on the part of the Indian government as grounds for separation.
In conclusion, we must first address basic and core issues to minimize appeal of such acts then only total eradication of terrorism is possible along with international cooperation.